THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW


Table of Contents

1. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
Mass and Weight
Specific Volume
Density
Specific Gravity
Humidity
Intensive and Extensive Properties
Summary

2. TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
Temperature
Temperature Scales
Pressure
Pressure Scales
Summary

3. ENERGY, WORK, AND HEAT
Energy
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Specific Internal Energy
Specific P-V Energy
Specific Enthalpy
Work
Heat
Entropy
Energy and Power Equivalences
Summary

4. THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Thermodynamic Systems and Surroundings
Types of Thermodynamic Systems
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Control Volume
Steady State
Thermodynamic Process
Cyclic Process
Reversible Process
Irreversible Process
Adiabatic Process
Isentropic Process
Polytropic Process
Throttling Process
Summary

5. CHANGE OF PHASE
Classification of Properties
Saturation
Saturated and Subcooled Liquids
Quality
Moisture Content
Saturated and Superheated Vapors
Constant Pressure Heat Addition
Critical Point
Fusion
Sublimation
Triple Point
Condensation
Summary

6. PROPERTY DIAGRAMS AND STEAM TABLES
Property Diagrams
Pressure-Temperature (P-T) Diagram
Pressure-Specific Volume (P-v) Diagram
Pressure-Enthalpy (P-h) Diagram
Enthalpy-Temperature (h-T) Diagram
Temperature-Entropy (T-s) Diagram
Enthalpy-Entropy (h-s) or Mollier Diagram
Steam Tables
Summary

7. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
First Law of Thermodynamics
Summary

8. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy
Carnot’s Principle
Carnot Cycle
Diagrams of Ideal and Real Processes
Power Plant Components
Heat Rejection
Typical Steam Cycle
Causes of Inefficiency
Summary

9. COMPRESSION PROCESSES
Boyle’s and Charles’ Laws
Ideal Gas Law
Fluid
Compressibility of Fluids
Constant Pressure Process
Constant Volume Process
Effects of Pressure Changes on Fluid Properties
Effects of Temperature Changes on Fluid Properties
Summary

10. HEAT TRANSFER TERMINOLOGY
Heat and Temperature
Heat and Work
Modes of Transferring Heat
Heat Flux
Thermal Conductivity
Log Mean Temperature Difference
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Bulk Temperature
Summary

11. CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER
Conduction
Conduction-Rectangular Coordinates
Equivalent Resistance Method
Electrical Analogy
Conduction-Cylindrical Coordinates
Summary

12. CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER
Convection
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Convection Heat Transfer
Summary

13. RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER
Thermal Radiation
Black Body Radiation
Emissivity
Radiation Configuration Factor
Summary

14. HEAT EXCHANGERS
Heat Exchangers
Parallel and Counter-Flow Designs
Non-Regenerative Heat Exchanger
Regenerative Heat Exchanger
Cooling Towers
Log Mean Temperature Difference Application to Heat Exchangers
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Summary

15. BOILING HEAT TRANSFER
Boiling
Nucleate Boiling
Bulk Boiling
Film Boiling
Departure from Nucleate Boiling and Critical Heat Flux
Summary

16. HEAT GENERATION
Heat Generation
Flux Profiles
Thermal Limits
Average Linear Power Density
Maximum Local Linear Power Density
Temperature Profiles
Volumetric Thermal Source Strength
Fuel Changes During Reactor Operation
Summary

17. DECAY HEAT
Reactor Decay Heat Production
Calculation of Decay heat
Decay Heat Limits
Decay Heat Removal
Summary

18. CONTINUITY EQUATION
Introduction
Properties of Fluids
Buoyancy
Compressibility
Relationship Between Depth and Pressure
Pascal’s Law
Control Volume
Volumetric Flow Rate
Mass Flow Rate
Conservation of Mass
Steady-State Flow
Continuity Equation
Summary

19. LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW
Flow Regimes
Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow
Flow Velocity Profiles
Average (Bulk) Velocity
Viscosity
Ideal Fluid
Reynolds Number
Summary

20. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
General Energy Equation
Simplified Bernoulli Equation
Head
Energy Conversions in Fluid Systems
Restrictions on the Simplified Bernoulli Equation
Extended Bernoulli
Application of Bernoulli’s Equation to a Venturi
Summary

21. HEAD LOSS
Head Loss
Friction Factor
Darcy’s Equation
Minor Losses
Equivalent Piping Length
Summary

22. NATURAL CIRCULATION
Forced and Natural Circulation
Thermal Driving Head
Conditions Required for Natural Circulation
Example of Natural Circulation Cooling
Flow Rate and Temperature Difference
Summary

23. TWO-PHASE FLUID FLOW
Two-Phase Fluid Flow
Flow Instability
Pipe Whip
Water Hammer
Pressure spike
Steam Hammer
Operational Considerations
Summary

24. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Energy Conversion in a Centrifugal Pump
Operating Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump
Cavitation
Net Positive Suction Head
Pump Laws
System Characteristic Curve
System Operating Point
System Use of Multiple Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps in Parallel
Centrifugal Pumps in Series
Summary


Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow - Volume 1.pdf
Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow - Volume 2.pdf
Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow - Volume 3.pdf