Bookmark and Share




TABLE OF CONTENTS



CENTRAL BOILER PLANTS


1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Central Boiler Plants
1.4 Equipment
1.5 Elementary Combustion Principles
1.6 Fossil Fuels
1.7 Combustion
1.8 Combustion of Coal
1.9 Combustion of Oil
1.10 Combustionof Natural Gas
1.11 Sootand Smoke
1.12 Flue Gas Analysis and Temperature
1.13 Combustion Efficiency
1.14 Boiler Efficiency
1.15 Central Boiler Plant Efficiency
1.16 Principles of Steam and Hot Water Generation
1.17 Basic Principles
1.18 HeatTransfer

2 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
2.1 Boilers and Heat Exchangers
2.2 Boiler Classifications
2.3 Boiler Design Requirements
2.4 F a b r i c a t i o n
2.5 Fire Tube Boilers
2.6 Water Tube Boilers
2.7 Hot Water Generators
2.8 Economizers
2.9 Air Heaters
2.10 Boiler Accessories and Fittings
2.11 ASME Requirements
2.12 Gage Glass, Gage Cocks
2.13 Water Columns
2.14 Pressure Gage, Temperature Gage
2.15 Safety Valves
2.16 Boiler Outlet Valves
2.17 Blowoff Valves and Piping
2.18 Fusible Plugs
2.19 Sootblowers
2.20 Coal Combustion Equipment
2.21 Coal-Handling Equipment
2.22 Ash-Handling Equipment
2.23 Oil-Firing Equipment
2.24 Oil Storage and Handling
2.25 Gas-Firing Equipment
2.26 Liquified Petroleum Gas
2.27 Controls and Instrumentation
2.28 Feedwater-Drum Level Controls
2.29 Combustion Controls
2.30 Boiler Safety Control
2.31 Additional Controls and Instrumentation
2.32 Water Treatment Control
2.33 Pollution Control Equipment
2.34 Pollution Regulations
2.35 Types of Pollutants and Control Methods
2.36 Mechanical Collectors
2.37 Fabric Filters
2.38 Electrostatic Precipitators
2.39 Wet Scrubbers
2.40 Auxiliary Equipment
2.41 Feedwater Heaters
2.42 Pumps and Injectors
2.43 Forced Draft Fans
2.44 Induced Draft Fans
2.45 Stacks, Flues, and Ducts
2.46 Steam Turbines
2.47 Electric Motors
2.48 Electrical Equipment
2.49 Variable Speed Drives
2.50 Air Compressors
2.51 Steam Traps
2.52 Piping Systems

3 OPERATION
3.1 Preliminary Operating Procedures
3.2 Plant Operation Considerations
3.3 Standing Operating Procedures
3.4 Daily and Monthly Boiler Plant Operating Logs
3.5 Inspection
3.6 ApplicableC odes
3.7 Basis for Comments
3.8 Preparation for Startup
3.9 Starting Fire
3.10 Warm-up Time
3.11 Placing a High Pressue Steam Boiler in Service
3.12 Placing a Hot Water Boiler in Service
3.13 Operating Adjustments and Procedures
3.14 Boiler Operation
3.15 Maintaining Pressure or Temperature
3.16 Feedwater and Boiler Water Treatment
3.17 Controlling Feedwater
3.18 Boiler Accessories
3.19 Coal Firing Procedures
3.20 Oil Firing Procedures
3.21 Combustion Controls
3.22 Centrifugal Pumps
3.23 Direct-Acting Pumps
3.24 Injectros
3.25 Fans
3.26 Feedwater Heating and Treatment
3.27 Economizers, Air Heaters and Pollution Control Equipment
3.28 Emergency Procedure-Abnormal Water Level
3.29 Emergency Procedure-Boiler Tube Failure
3.30 Emergency Procedure-Fan Failure
3.31 Emergency Procedure-Electric System Failure
3.32 Emergency Procedure-Flame Failure
3.33 Removing a Boiler from Service
3.34 Optimizing Central Plant Efficiency
3.35 Optimizing Combustion Efficiency
3.36 Optimizing Boiler Efficiency
3.37 Optimizing Central Boiler Plant Efficiency

4 WATER TREATMENT FOR BOILER PLANTS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Objectives of Water Treatment
4.3 Impurites in Water
4.4 Results and Reactions of Boiler Impurites
4.5 Controlling Impurites
4.6 Treatment Requirements
4.7 Equipment and Chemicals
4.8 External Treatment Equipment
4.9 Internal Treatment
4.10 Blowdown
4.11 Operation
4.12 Boiler Water Treatment Operating Log
4.13 Procurement of Standard and Special Treatment Chemicals
4.14 Care and Mixing of Treatment Chemicals
4.15 Initial Flushing and Cleaning
4.16 Flushing and Cleaning of Scaled and Corroded Boilers
4.17 Sampling
4.18 Chemical Analysis
4.19 General Operation of External Treatment Equipment
4.20 General Operation of Internal Treatment Equipment
4.21 Safety Precautions
4.22 Care of Idle Steel Boilers

5 INSPECTION AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Purpose and Scope
5.3 Types of Maintenance
5.4 Responsibility
5.5 Inspection
5.6 Housekeeping
5.7 UtilitiesInspectionandServiceRecords
5.8 Tools
5.9 SpareParts
5.10 SpecialSupplies
5.11 ScheduledPreventiveMaintenance
5.12 SchedulingandUseofTheInformation
5.13 Boilers
5.14 Economizers
5.15 AirHeaters
5.16 WaterColumns
5.17 SafetyValves
5.18 FusiblePlugs
5.19 Sootblowers
5.20 Stokers
5.21 PulverizedCoalEquipment
5.22 CoalHandlingEquipment
5.23 AshHandlingEquipment
5.24 OilBurners
5.25 OilHandlingEquipment
5.26 GasBurners
5.27 FeedwaterDrumLevelControls
5.28 CombustionControls
5.29 BoilerSafetyControls
5.30 Instrumentation
5.31 MechanicalCollectors
5.32 Stacks
5.33 ZeoliteWaterSofteners
5.34 HotLime-SodaSofteners
5.35 DeaeratingHeatersandDearators
5.36 Pumps
5.37 CentrifugalPumps
5.38 ReciprocatingPumps
5.39 SteamInjectors
5.41 SteamTurbine(Non-Condensing)
5.42 AirCompressors
5.43 SteamTraps
5.44 ElectricMotors
5.45 Forced-DraftandInduced-DraftFans
5.46 CommandInspections
5.47 TechnicalInspection
5.48 MajorArmyCommandInspections
5.49 REFERENCES
5.50 CHEMICALANALYSISPROCEDURES
5.51 ExternalTreatmentPlants
5.52 BoilerWater
5.53 MiscellaneousTests

6 HEAT BALANCE CALCULATIONS
6.1 100 PSIG Steam Heat Balance
6.2 15 PSIG Steam Heat Balance
6.3 High Temperature Water Heat Balance

7 BOILER WATER CALCULATIONS
7.1 Boiler Blowdown Calculations
7.2 Determining Feedwater Requirements
7.3 Determining Makeup Requirements
7.4 Determining Chemical Treatment Requirements




Central Boiler Plants - part 1.pdf
Central Boiler Plants - part 2.pdf
Central Boiler Plants - part 3.pdf
Central Boiler Plants - part 4.pdf